Alexey Kiselev "Methods of Universal Yoga for the arms. The movement of a shoulder"

This is the second part of the article "Methods of Universal Yoga for the arms." Please read the first part here.
 

Methods of Universal Yoga for the arms. The movement of a shoulder

 

Alexey Kiselev

Kinesiology movements

Coordinate planes and axes
 
Picture 3.1.1.1. Planes
 
Picture 3.1.1.2. Coordinate axes and the neutral position of the body
 

There are hypothetical planes and axes that can be drawn inside the human body and any organ can be characterized according to those lines. There can be outlined three types of planes. (Picture 3.1.1.1.):
  1. One horizontal (lateral) plane, which is drawn parallel to the horizon line divides the body of a standing person vertically into the upper and lower parts.
  2. Two vertical planes:
    • one of them located parallel to the forehead – frontal- divides the body into the front and back parts.
    • the second is going from front to back (like a shooting arrow) – sagital – and divides the body into the right and left sides. If the sagital plane movers directly through the middle of the body it is then called a median or the middle (see the picture). It divides the body into two equal parts.
The axes (Picture 3.1.1.2) drawn inside the human body in the same directions are named accordingly:
  1. Vertical (lateral and oriented alongside the body) goes downwards and is located on the intersection of the frontal and sagital planes.
  2. Frontal (transversal and oriented from right to left) is located in the horizontal plane and its direction is identical to the frontal plane.
  3. Sagital (located in the front to back direction) – can be found in the horizontal plane and its direction coincides the sagital plane.
 
These axes are used to characterize various movements in the joints.
Neutral position – the position of the body when the arms are hanging down alongside the body. Palms turned to the hips. (Picture.3.1.1.2.)
 
Movements
Text and illustrations from the book «Your Body» pp. 104-107.
 
There can be distinguished two types of movements as the two functional areas may be moving separately or together. First of all the shoulder may move relative to the chest. (Pictures 3.1.2.1).
 
Pictures 3.1.2.1. Movement of the shoulder relative to the chest
А) ascent of the shoulder B) descend of the shoulder C) movement of the shoulder away from the spine (this movement takes the shoulder forward) – abduction
D) movement of the shoulder toward the spine – adduction E) rotation of the sharp end of the scapula inward – inward movement of the peninsula F) rotation of the sharp end of the scapula outward – outer movement of the peninsula
We can also observe the movement of the arm toward the scapula which make an effect (Pictures 3.1.2.2)
 
Pictures 3.1.2.2. The movement of taking the arm to the scapula
А) front: antepulsions ( application: when an angle greater than 90 degrees is created the arms start moving backwards, but still this movement is considered an antepulsion) B) back: retropulsions, their amplitude is much less C) out: abductions (when an angle greater than 90 degrees is created the arm starts moving inwards but still this movement is considered an abduction)
Inside: abductions (application: it can not proceed only in the frontal plane because the contact of the arm and the chest occurs).
D) with antepulsion E) with retropulsion F) inner rotation G) outer rotation
When these movements reach significant amplitude they begin to involve the chest and the spine (Pictures 3.1.2.3).
Pictures 3.1.2.3. Movement of the chest and spine following the arms
A) antepulsion begins to lengthen the spine and «open» the chest B) retropulsion requires to bend the spine and «close» the chest С) abduction requires a side bend of the spine in an opposite direction, and «opening» of only one side of the chest where the movement is occurring
D) adduction requires a side bend of the spine in the direction of the arm which is moving, and the same side of the chest is «opening» E) rotations require the rotation of the vertebral column
 

Understanding of directions of mobility in Universal Yoga

The following text is partially taken from the book «Yoga – the Tradition of Union» A. Lappa, p.30.
 
Picture 3.2.1. Directions of mobility in Universal Yoga
 
In Universal Yoga a simplified scheme of directions of mobility of the major joints is used. (Picture 3.2.1.).
A universal joint may have 8 major directions of movement:
     1) forward bend (lowering the extremity),
     2) backward bend (raising the extremity),
     3) bend to the right, taking the extremity to the side,
     4) bend to the left, moving the extremity toward the centre,
     5) rotation to the right, outer rotation,
     6) rotation to the left, inner rotation,
     7) lengthening,
     8) contraction.
 
 
The last two shall not be looked at in this article. Some joints may move in all directions listed above, and some can only move in limited directions.
The humeral joint has 6 stages of mobility.